Xihuitl

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Literally means year and also turquoise, comet, and herb.

Xihuitl as Year

Universal year bearer sign found throughout Anahuac. Spinden, Herbert Joseph. Ancient Civilizations of Mexico and Central America. Page 222.

There are four year bearers in the Anahuaca calendar system which vary across cultures. The most common which are found throughout central and southern Mexico in Pre-Cuauhtemoc codices are: tochtli, acatl, tecpatl, and calli. The codex Porfirio Diaz also ascribed the year bearers ehecatl, mazatl, malinalli, and ollin to the Cuicateca. [1] Tochtli is the first year sign and is the year counter of huitztlampa, the south. Acatl is the second year sign and is the year counter of tlauhcampa, the east, direction of the sun. Tecpatl is the third year sign and is the year counter of mictlampa, the north, direction of the land of the dead. Calli is the fourth year sign and is the year counter of Cihuatlampa, the west, the direction where the women dwelt. [2] The year bearers cycle through time with an accompanying number 1-13. 1-tochtli is followed by 2-acatl, 3-tecpatl, and 4-calli until we reach the end of the cycle which is 13 - calli. Upon reaching 13 - calli, 52 years have passed because 13 X 4 = 52. The next cycle then starts on 1-tochtli and a New Fire Ceremony was celebrated throughout Anahuac to bring in the next 52 year cycle.

Shift from 1-Tochtli to 2-Acatl

Folio 32v of the Codex Telleriano-Ramensis showing the dust storms and dead victims during the famine of 1454
Although Anahuaca cultures recognized 1-Tochtli as the start of the new 52-year cycle, the Mexica changed this starting date to 2-Acatl in either the year 1455 or 1507. There are two reasons given for this shift in various historical sources. The first reason is the desire to coincide the new 52-year cycle with 2-Acatl, the birthdate of Huitzilopochtli. The second reason is the fact that famines took place in 1454 and 1506 which both fall in the year 1-Tochtli. [3] A tree ring study conducted in 2004 confirmed that droughts did indeed take place in the years stated above. [4]

1454-2155 [5]

1454 1 Tochtli 1467 1 Ácatl
1455 2 Ácatl 1468 2 Técpatl
1456 3 Técpatl 1469 3 Calli
1457 4 Calli 1470 4 Tochtli
1458 5 Tochtli 1471 5 Ácatl
1459 6 Ácatl 1472 6 Técpatl
1460 7 Técpatl 1473 7 Calli
1461 8 Calli 1474 8 Tochtli
1462 9 Tochtli 1475 9 Ácatl
1463 10 Ácatl 1476 10 Técpatl
1464 11 Técpatl 1477 11 Calli
1465 12 Calli 1478 12 Tochtli
1466 13 Tochtli 1479 13 Ácatl
1480 1 Técpatl 1493 1 Calli
1481 2 Calli 1494 2 Tochtli
1482 3 Tochtli 1495 3 Ácatl
1483 4 Ácatl 1496 4 Técpatl
1484 5 Técpatl 1497 5 Calli
1485 6 Calli 1498 6 Tochtli
1486 7 Tochtli 1499 7 Ácatl
1487 8 Ácatl 1500 8 Técpatl
1488 9 Técpatl 1501 9 Calli
1489 10 Calli 1502 10 Tochtli
1490 11 Tochtli 1503 11 Ácatl
1491 12 Ácatl 1504 12 Técpatl
1492 13 Técpatl 1505 13 Calli
1506 1 Tochtli 1519* 1 Ácatl
1507 2 Ácatl 1520* 2 Técpatl
1508 3 Técpatl 1521* 3 Calli
1509 4 Calli 1522* 4 Tochtli
1510 5 Tochtli 1523 5 Ácatl
1511 6 Ácatl 1524 6 Técpatl
1512 7 Técpatl 1525 7 Calli
1513 8 Calli 1526 8 Tochtli
1514 9 Tochtli 1527 9 Ácatl
1515 10 Ácatl 1528 10 Técpatl
1516 11 Técpatl 1529 11 Calli
1517 12 Calli 1530 12 Tochtli
1518 13 Tochtli 1531 13 Ácatl
1532 1 Técpatl 1545 1 Calli
1533 2 Calli 1546 2 Tochtli
1534 3 Tochtli 1547 3 Ácatl
1535 4 Ácatl 1548 4 Técpatl
1536 5 Técpatl 1549 5 Calli
1537 6 Calli 1550 6 Tochtli
1538 7 Tochtli 1551 7 Ácatl
1539 8 Ácatl 1552 8 Técpatl
1540 9 Técpatl 1553 9 Calli
1541 10 Calli 1554 10 Tochtli
1542 11 Tochtli 1555 11 Ácatl
1543 12 Ácatl 1556 12 Técpatl
1544 13 Técpatl 1557 13 Calli
1558 1 Tochtli 1571 1 Ácatl
1559 2 Ácatl 1572 2 Técpatl
1560 3 Técpatl 1573 3 Calli
1561 4 Calli 1574 4 Tochtli
1562 5 Tochtli 1575 5 Ácatl
1563 6 Ácatl 1576 6 Técpatl
1564 7 Técpatl 1577 7 Calli
1565 8 Calli 1578 8 Tochtli
1566 9 Tochtli 1579 9 Ácatl
1567 10 Ácatl 1580 10 Técpatl
1568 11 Técpatl 1581 11 Calli
1569 12 Calli 1582 12 Tochtli
1570 13 Tochtli 1583* 13 Ácatl
1584 1 Técpatl 1597 1 Calli
1585 2 Calli** 1598 2 Tochtli
1586 3 Tochtli 1599 3 Ácatl
1587 4 Ácatl 1600 4 Técpatl
1588 5 Técpatl 1601 5 Calli
1589 6 Calli 1602 6 Tochtli
1590 7 Tochtli 1603 7 Ácatl
1591 8 Ácatl 1604 8 Técpatl
1592 9 Técpatl 1605 9 Calli
1593 10 Calli 1606 10 Tochtli
1594 11 Tochtli 1607 11 Ácatl
1595 12 Ácatl 1608 12 Técpatl
1596 13 Técpatl 1609 13 Calli
1610 1 Tochtli 1623 1 Ácatl
1611 2 Ácatl 1624 2 Técpatl
1612 3 Técpatl 1625 3 Calli
1613 4 Calli 1626 4 Tochtli
1614 5 Tochtli 1627 5 Ácatl
1615 6 Ácatl 1628 6 Técpatl
1616 7 Técpatl 1629 7 Calli
1617 8 Calli 1630 8 Tochtli
1618 9 Tochtli 1631 9 Ácatl
1619 10 Ácatl 1632 10 Técpatl
1620 11 Técpatl 1633 11 Calli
1621 12 Calli 1634 12 Tochtli
1622 13 Tochtli 1635 13 Ácatl
1636 1 Técpatl 1649 1 Calli
1637 2 Calli 1650 2 Tochtli
1638 3 Tochtli 1651 3 Ácatl
1639 4 Ácatl 1652 4 Técpatl
1640 5 Técpatl 1653 5 Calli
1641 6 Calli 1654 6 Tochtli
1642 7 Tochtli 1655 7 Ácatl
1643 8 Ácatl 1656 8 Técpatl
1644 9 Técpatl 1657 9 Calli
1645 10 Calli 1658 10 Tochtli
1646 11 Tochtli 1659 11 Ácatl
1647 12 Ácatl 1660 12 Técpatl
1648 13 Técpatl 1661 13 Calli
1662 1 Tochtli 1675 1 Ácatl
1663 2 Ácatl 1676 2 Técpatl
1664 3 Técpatl 1677 3 Calli
1665 4 Calli 1678 4 Tochtli
1666 5 Tochtli 1679 5 Ácatl
1667 6 Ácatl 1680 6 Técpatl
1668 7 Técpatl 1681 7 Calli
1669 8 Calli 1682 8 Tochtli
1670 9 Tochtli 1683 9 Ácatl
1671 10 Ácatl 1684 10 Técpatl
1672 11 Técpatl 1685 11 Calli
1673 12 Calli 1686 12 Tochtli
1674 13 Tochtli 1687 13 Ácatl
1688 1 Técpatl 1701 1 Calli
1689 2 Calli 1702 2 Tochtli
1690 3 Tochtli 1703 3 Ácatl
1691 4 Ácatl 1704 4 Técpatl
1692 5 Técpatl 1705 5 Calli
1693 6 Calli 1706 6 Tochtli
1694 7 Tochtli 1707 7 Ácatl
1695 8 Ácatl 1708 8 Técpatl
1696 9 Técpatl 1709 9 Calli
1697 10 Calli 1710 10 Tochtli
1698 11 Tochtli 1711 11 Ácatl
1699 12 Ácatl 1712 12 Técpatl
1700 13 Técpatl 1713 13 Calli
1714 1 Tochtli 1727 1 Ácatl
1715 2 Ácatl 1728 2 Técpatl
1716 3 Técpatl 1729 3 Calli
1717 4 Calli 1730 4 Tochtli
1718 5 Tochtli 1731 5 Ácatl
1719 6 Ácatl 1732 6 Técpatl
1720 7 Técpatl 1733 7 Calli
1721 8 Calli 1734 8 Tochtli
1722 9 Tochtli 1735 9 Ácatl
1723 10 Ácatl 1736 10 Técpatl
1724 11 Técpatl 1737 11 Calli
1725 12 Calli 1738 12 Tochtli
1726 13 Tochtli 1739 13 Ácatl
1740 1 Técpatl 1753 1 Calli
1741 2 Calli 1754 2 Tochtli
1742 3 Tochtli 1755 3 Ácatl
1743 4 Ácatl 1756 4 Técpatl
1744 5 Técpatl 1757 5 Calli
1745 6 Calli 1758 6 Tochtli
1746 7 Tochtli 1759 7 Ácatl
1747 8 Ácatl 1760 8 Técpatl
1748 9 Técpatl 1761 9 Calli
1749 10 Calli 1762 10 Tochtli
1750 11 Tochtli 1763 11 Ácatl
1751 12 Ácatl 1764 12 Técpatl
1752 13 Técpatl 1765 13 Calli
1766 1 Tochtli 1779 1 Ácatl
1767 2 Ácatl 1780 2 Técpatl
1768 3 Técpatl 1781 3 Calli
1769 4 Calli 1782 4 Tochtli
1770 5 Tochtli 1783 5 Ácatl
1771 6 Ácatl 1784 6 Técpatl
1772 7 Técpatl 1785 7 Calli
1773 8 Calli 1786 8 Tochtli
1774 9 Tochtli 1787 9 Ácatl
1775 10 Ácatl 1788 10 Técpatl
1776 11 Técpatl 1789 11 Calli
1777 12 Calli 1790 12 Tochtli
1778 13 Tochtli 1791 13 Ácatl
1792 1 Técpatl 1805 1 Calli
1793 2 Calli 1806 2 Tochtli
1794 3 Tochtli 1807 3 Ácatl
1795 4 Ácatl 1808 4 Técpatl
1796 5 Técpatl 1809 5 Calli
1797 6 Calli 1810 6 Tochtli
1798 7 Tochtli 1811 7 Ácatl
1799 8 Ácatl 1812 8 Técpatl
1800 9 Técpatl 1813 9 Calli
1801 10 Calli 1814 10 Tochtli
1802 11 Tochtli 1815 11 Ácatl
1803 12 Ácatl 1816 12 Técpatl
1804 13 Técpatl 1817 13 Calli
1818 1 Tochtli 1831 1 Ácatl
1819 2 Ácatl 1832 2 Técpatl
1820 3 Técpatl 1833 3 Calli
1821 4 Calli 1834 4 Tochtli
1822 5 Tochtli 1835 5 Ácatl
1823 6 Ácatl 1836 6 Técpatl
1824 7 Técpatl 1837 7 Calli
1825 8 Calli 1838 8 Tochtli
1826 9 Tochtli 1839 9 Ácatl
1827 10 Ácatl 1840 10 Técpatl
1828 11 Técpatl 1841 11 Calli
1829 12 Calli 1842 12 Tochtli
1830 13 Tochtli 1843 13 Ácatl
1844 1 Técpatl 1857 1 Calli
1845 2 Calli 1858 2 Tochtli
1846 3 Tochtli 1859 3 Ácatl
1847 4 Ácatl 1860 4 Técpatl
1848 5 Técpatl 1861 5 Calli
1849 6 Calli 1862 6 Tochtli
1850 7 Tochtli 1863 7 Ácatl
1851 8 Ácatl 1864 8 Técpatl
1852 9 Técpatl 1865 9 Calli
1853 10 Calli 1866 10 Tochtli
1854 11 Tochtli 1867 11 Ácatl
1855 12 Ácatl 1868 12 Técpatl
1856 13 Técpatl 1869 13 Calli
1870 1 Tochtli 1883 1 Ácatl
1871 2 Ácatl 1884 2 Técpatl
1872 3 Técpatl 1885 3 Calli
1873 4 Calli 1886 4 Tochtli
1874 5 Tochtli 1887 5 Ácatl
1875 6 Ácatl 1888 6 Técpatl
1876 7 Técpatl 1889 7 Calli
1877 8 Calli 1890 8 Tochtli
1878 9 Tochtli 1891 9 Ácatl
1879 10 Ácatl 1892 10 Técpatl
1880 11 Técpatl 1893 11 Calli
1881 12 Calli 1894 12 Tochtli
1882 13 Tochtli 1895 13 Ácatl
1896 1 Técpatl 1909 1 Calli
1897 2 Calli 1910 2 Tochtli
1898 3 Tochtli 1911 3 Ácatl
1899 4 Ácatl 1912 4 Técpatl
1900 5 Técpatl 1913 5 Calli
1901 6 Calli 1914 6 Tochtli
1902 7 Tochtli 1915 7 Ácatl
1903 8 Ácatl 1916 8 Técpatl
1904 9 Técpatl 1917 9 Calli
1905 10 Calli 1918 10 Tochtli
1906 11 Tochtli 1919 11 Ácatl
1907 12 Ácatl 1920 12 Técpatl
1908 13 Técpatl 1921 13 Calli
1922 1 Tochtli 1935 1 Ácatl
1923 2 Ácatl 1936 2 Técpatl
1924 3 Técpatl 1937 3 Calli
1925 4 Calli 1938 4 Tochtli
1926 5 Tochtli 1939 5 Ácatl
1927 6 Ácatl 1940 6 Técpatl
1928 7 Técpatl 1941 7 Calli
1929 8 Calli 1942 8 Tochtli
1930 9 Tochtli 1943 9 Ácatl
1931 10 Ácatl 1944 10 Técpatl
1932 11 Técpatl 1945 11 Calli
1933 12 Calli 1946 12 Tochtli
1934 13 Tochtli 1947 13 Ácatl
1948 1 Técpatl 1961 1 Calli
1949 2 Calli 1962 2 Tochtli
1950 3 Tochtli 1963 3 Ácatl
1951 4 Ácatl 1964 4 Técpatl
1952 5 Técpatl 1965 5 Calli
1953 6 Calli 1966 6 Tochtli
1954 7 Tochtli 1967 7 Ácatl
1955 8 Ácatl 1968 8 Técpatl
1956 9 Técpatl 1969 9 Calli
1957 10 Calli 1970 10 Tochtli
1958 11 Tochtli 1971 11 Ácatl
1959 12 Ácatl 1972 12 Técpatl
1960 13 Técpatl 1973 13 Calli
1974 1 Tochtli 1987 1 Ácatl
1975 2 Ácatl 1988 2 Técpatl
1976 3 Técpatl 1989 3 Calli
1977 4 Calli 1990 4 Tochtli
1978 5 Tochtli 1991 5 Ácatl
1979 6 Ácatl 1992 6 Técpatl
1980 7 Técpatl 1993 7 Calli
1981 8 Calli 1994 8 Tochtli
1982 9 Tochtli 1995 9 Ácatl
1983 10 Ácatl 1996 10 Técpatl
1984 11 Técpatl 1997 11 Calli
1985 12 Calli 1998 12 Tochtli
1986 13 Tochtli 1999 13 Ácatl
2000 1 Técpatl 2013 1 Calli
2001 2 Calli 2014 2 Tochtli
2002 3 Tochtli 2015 3 Ácatl
2003 4 Ácatl 2016 4 Técpatl
2004 5 Técpatl 2017 5 Calli
2005 6 Calli 2018 6 Tochtli
2006 7 Tochtli 2019 7 Ácatl
2007 8 Ácatl 2020 8 Técpatl
2008 9 Técpatl 2021 9 Calli
2009 10 Calli 2022 10 Tochtli
2010 11 Tochtli 2023 11 Ácatl
2011 12 Ácatl 2024 12 Técpatl
2012 13 Técpatl 2025 13 Calli
2026 1 Tochtli 2039 1 Ácatl
2027 2 Ácatl 2040 2 Técpatl
2028 3 Técpatl 2041 3 Calli
2029 4 Calli 2042 4 Tochtli
2030 5 Tochtli 2043 5 Ácatl
2031 6 Ácatl 2044 6 Técpatl
2032 7 Técpatl 2045 7 Calli
2033 8 Calli 2046 8 Tochtli
2034 9 Tochtli 2047 9 Ácatl
2035 10 Ácatl 2048 10 Técpatl
2036 11 Técpatl 2049 11 Calli
2037 12 Calli 2050 12 Tochtli
2038 13 Tochtli 2051 13 Ácatl
2052 1 Técpatl 2065 1 Calli
2053 2 Calli 2066 2 Tochtli
2054 3 Tochtli 2067 3 Ácatl
2055 4 Ácatl 2068 4 Técpatl
2056 5 Técpatl 2069 5 Calli
2057 6 Calli 2070 6 Tochtli
2058 7 Tochtli 2071 7 Ácatl
2059 8 Ácatl 2072 8 Técpatl
2060 9 Técpatl 2073 9 Calli
2061 10 Calli 2074 10 Tochtli
2062 11 Tochtli 2075 11 Ácatl
2063 12 Ácatl 2076 12 Técpatl
2064 13 Técpatl 2077 13 Calli
2078 1 Tochtli 2091 1 Ácatl
2079 2 Ácatl 2092 2 Técpatl
2080 3 Técpatl 2093 3 Calli
2081 4 Calli 2094 4 Tochtli
2082 5 Tochtli 2095 5 Ácatl
2083 6 Ácatl 2096 6 Técpatl
2084 7 Técpatl 2097 7 Calli
2085 8 Calli 2098 8 Tochtli
2086 9 Tochtli 2099 9 Ácatl
2087 10 Ácatl 2100 10 Técpatl
2088 11 Técpatl 2101 11 Calli
2089 12 Calli 2102 12 Tochtli
2090 13 Tochtli 2103 13 Ácatl
2104 1 Técpatl 2117 1 Calli
2105 2 Calli 2118 2 Tochtli
2106 3 Tochtli 2119 3 Ácatl
2107 4 Ácatl 2120 4 Técpatl
2108 5 Técpatl 2121 5 Calli
2109 6 Calli 2122 6 Tochtli
2110 7 Tochtli 2123 7 Ácatl
2111 8 Ácatl 2124 8 Técpatl
2112 9 Técpatl 2125 9 Calli
2113 10 Calli 2126 10 Tochtli
2114 11 Tochtli 2127 11 Ácatl
2115 12 Ácatl 2128 12 Técpatl
2116 13 Técpatl 2129 13 Calli
2130 1 Tochtli 2143 1 Ácatl
2131 2 Ácatl 2144 2 Técpatl
2132 3 Técpatl 2145 3 Calli
2133 4 Calli 2146 4 Tochtli
2134 5 Tochtli 2147 5 Ácatl
2135 6 Ácatl 2148 6 Técpatl
2136 7 Técpatl 2149 7 Calli
2137 8 Calli 2150 8 Tochtli
2138 9 Tochtli 2151 9 Ácatl
2139 10 Ácatl 2152 10 Técpatl
2140 11 Técpatl 2153 11 Calli
2141 12 Calli 2154 12 Tochtli
2142 13 Tochtli 2155 13 Ácatl
  1. Spinden, Herbert Joseph. Ancient Civilizations of Mexico and Central America. Page 222.
  2. Sahagun, Bernardino. Florentine Codex, Book 7. Page 21.
  3. Hassig, Ross. Time, History, and Belief in Aztec and Colonial Mexico. Pages 84-85.
  4. Therrell, Matthew, Stahle, David, Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo. Aztec Drought and "the Curse of One Rabbit"
  5. This chart is based on the work of Ome Tecpatl, personal correspondence.